Indië

Vanuit Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie.
Spring na: navigasie , soek
Republiek van Indië
???? ??????? *
Bharat Ga?ar?jya
Horisontale driekleur vlag (diep saffraan, wit, en groen). In die middel van die wit is 'n donkerblou wiel met 24 speke. Drie leeus wat na links, regs, en die rigting van die kyker, bo-op 'n fries met' n perd galop, 'n 24-speek-wiel, en' n olifant. Onder is 'n motto "??????? ????".
Vlag Emblem
Motto : " Satyameva Jayate "( Sanskrit )
??????? ???? ( Devanagari )
"Waarheid Alleen Triomfen" [1]
Volkslied :
Jana gana Mana instrumental.ogg

Jana gana Mana
U is die heerser van die gedagtes van alle mense
[2]
Nasionale Song [4]
Vande Mataram.ogg

Vande Mataram
Ek buig vir jou, Moeder
[3]
Beeld van die wêreld gesentreer op Indië, met Indië uitgelig.
Gebied beheer deur Indië in die donker groen ;
Geëis, maar die onbeheerde gebiede in die lig
groen
Capital Nieu-Delhi
28 ° 36,8 'N 77 ° 12,5' E / 28,6133 ° N 77,2083 ° E / 28,6133; 77,2083
Grootste stad Mumbai
Amptelike taal (s)
Erkende streeks tale
Nasionale tale Geen gedefinieer deur die Grondwet [6]
Demonym Indiese
Regering Federale parlementêre
grondwetlike Republiek [7]
- Voorsitter Pratibha Patil
- Eerste Minister Manmohan Singh ( INC )
- Speaker van die Huis Meer Kumar ( INC )
- Hoofregter SH Kapadia
Wetgewer Sansad
- Eerste Kamer Rajya Sabha
- Laer huis Lok Sabha
Onafhanklikheid van die Verenigde Koninkryk
- Verklaar 15 Augustus 1947
- Republiek 26 Januarie 1950
Ruimte
- 3.287.263 km 2 ‡ ( 7 )
1.269.219 vierkante myl
- Water (%) 9,56
Bevolking
- 2011 sensus 1210193422 [8] ( 2nd )
- Digtheid 365.2/km 2 ( 31 )
945.8/sq myl
BBP ( PPP ) 2010 skatting
- Totale $ 4,060 triljoen [9] ( 4 )
- Per capita $ 3.339 [9]
BBP (nominaal) 2010 skatting
- Totale $ 1,538 triljoen [9] ( 10 )
- Per capita $ 1.265 [9]
Gini (2004) 36,8 [10] ( 79 )
HDI (2010) verhoog 0,519 [11] (medium) ( 119 )
Geld Indiese roepee ( INR ) ( INR )
Tydsone IST ( UTC +5:30)
- Summer ( DST ) nie waargeneem ( UTC +5:30)
Datum formaat dd / mm / jjjj ( AD )
Dryf op die links
ISO 3166-kode IN
Internet TLD . In
Skakelkode 91

Indië ( Luister i / ? n d i ? / ), amptelik die Republiek van Indië ( Hindi : ???? ??????? Bharat Ga?ar?jya, sien ook die amptelike name van Indië), is 'n land in Suid- Asië . Dit is die sewende grootste land deur 'n geografiese gebied , die tweede mees bevolkte land met meer as 1,2 miljard mense, en die mees bevolkte demokrasie in die wêreld. Begrens deur die Indiese Oseaan op die suide, die Arabiese See aan die suidweste, en die Baai van Bengale aan die suidooste, is dit deel land grense met Pakistan na die weste , Bhoetan, die People's Republiek van Sjina en Nepal in die noordooste, en Bangladesh en Birma na die ooste. In die Indiese Oseaan, Indië is in die omgewing van Sri Lanka en die Maldives , benewens, Indië se Andaman Nicobar Eilande deel 'n maritieme grens met Thailand en Indonesië .

Die tuiste van die ou Indus Valley Civilization en 'n streek van historiese handel roetes en groot ryke, die Indiese subkontinent is geïdentifiseer met die kommersiële en kulturele rykdom vir 'n groot gedeelte van sy lang geskiedenis . [13] Vier van die wêreld se groot godsdienste - Hindoeïsme, Boeddhisme, Djainisme en Sikhisme -oorsprong hier, AANGESIEN dat Zoroastrisme , die Christendom en Islam aangekom het in die 1 millennium CE en ook gehelp het om vorm die streek se diverse kultuur . [14] Geleidelik geannekseer deur die Britse Oos-Indië Maatskappy van die vroeë 18de eeu en gekoloniseer deur die Verenigde Koninkryk uit die middel van die 19de eeu, het Indië 'n onafhanklike nasie geword het in 1947 ná 'n stryd vir onafhanklikheid wat deur gemerk was nie- gewelddadige weerstand gelei deur Mahatma Gandhi.

Die Indiese ekonomie is die wêreld se tiende-grootste ekonomie deur nominale BBP en vierde grootste ekonomie deur die koopkragpariteit (PPP) . [9 ] Na aanleiding van die mark gebaseerde ekonomiese hervormings in 1991, Indië geword het een van die vinnigste groeiende groot ekonomieë, en is beskou as 'n nuut geïndustrialiseerde land , is dit egter steeds die hoof te bied op die uitdagings van armoede , ongeletterdheid , korrupsie en onvoldoende openbare gesondheid . 'N kern wapens staat en 'n streeks-krag , dit is die derde grootste staande weermag in die wêreld en geledere tiende in die militêre uitgawes onder die nasies .

Indië is 'n federale grondwetlike republiek regeer onder ' n parlementêre stelsel wat bestaan ??uit 28 state en 7-unie gebiede . Dit is een van die 5 BRICS nasies. Indië is 'n pluralistiese , meertalige en multi-etniese samelewing . Dit is ook die tuiste van 'n verskeidenheid van wild in 'n verskeidenheid van beskermde habitats .

Inhoud

Etimologie

Die naam Indië is afgelei Indus , wat afgelei is uit die Ou Persiese woord Hindoe , uit Sanskrit ?????? Sindhu, die historiese plaaslike benaming vir die Indus-rivier . [15] Die antieke Grieke as Indoi (?????) verwys na die Indiërs, die mense van die Indus. [16] Die Grondwet van Indië en die gebruik in baie Indiese tale ook erken Bharat ( uitgespreek [b ? a ? r?t? ] ( luister )) as 'n amptelike naam van gelyke status . [17 ] Die naam Bharat is afgelei van die naam van die legendariese koning Bharata in Hindoe Skrifte Hindustan ([??nd??st?a ? n ] ( Luister )), wat oorspronklik 'n Persiese woord vir "Land van die Hindoes verwys na die noorde van Indië en Pakistan voor 1947, word van tyd tot tyd ook gebruik as 'n sinoniem vir almal van Indië. [18]

Geskiedenis

Antieke Indië

Die vroegste anatomies moderne mens bly in Suid-Asië is ongeveer 30.000 jaar gelede. [19] Aan die tydelike Mesolitiese webwerwe in die rotskuns gevind is in baie dele van die Indiese subkontinent, insluitende by die Bhimbetka rotsskuilings in die Madhya Pradesh . [20] Omstreeks 7000 vC die eerste bekende Neolitiese nedersettings op die subkontinent verskyn in Mehrgarh en ander plekke in die Wes--Pakistan . [21 ] Hierdie geleidelik ontwikkel tot die Indusvallei beskawing , [22 ] die eerste stedelike kultuur in Suid-Asië , [23 ] , wat floreer het gedurende 2500-1900 vC in Pakistan en Wes-Indië. [24] Centred rondom stede soos Mohenjo-Daro , Harappa , Dholavira , en Kalibangan , en vertrou op uiteenlopende vorme van bestaansboerdery, die beskawing betrokke is kragtig in handwerk produksie en breed handel [23]

Gedurende die tydperk 2000-500 vC, baie streke van die subkontinent ontwikkel van koper ouderdom Ystertydperk kulture. [25] Die Vedas , die oudste geskrifte van Hindoeïsme , [26] is geskryf gedurende hierdie tydperk, en geskiedkundiges het om dit te postuleer ontleed 'n Vedische kultuur in die Punjab- streek en die boonste Ganges plat . [25 ] Meeste historici ook oorweeg om hierdie tydperk te hê omvat verskeie golwe van die Indo- Ariese migrasie na die subkontinent van die noordweste. [ 26 ] Die kastestelsel, die skep van 'n maatskaplike hiërargie gedurende hierdie tydperk verskyn. [27] In die Deccan , argeologiese bewyse uit hierdie tydperk dui op die bestaan ??van ' n ??kapteinskap stadium van politieke organisasie. [ 25 ] In Suid -Indië, die groot aantal mega monumente wat voorkom uit hierdie tydperk, [28] Naby bewyse van Landbou, besproeiing tenks , en handwerk tradisies toon progressie aan te sittende lewe. [28]

Damaged bruin skildery van 'n tafel man en vrou.
Skilderye op die Ajanta grotte in Aurangabad , Maharashtra , sesde eeu

Teen die vyfde eeu vC, het die klein kapteinskappe van die Ganges Plain en die Noordwes-gebiede in 16 groot oligarchie en monargieë genoem Mahajanapadas gekonsolideer . [29] Die opkomende verstedeliking, sowel as die orthodoxies van die laat Vedische ouderdom het die godsdienstige hervorming bewegings van Boeddhisme en Djainisme . [30] Boeddhisme, gebaseer op die van Indië se eerste geskiedkundige figuur, Gautam Boeddha , gehad gelok volgelinge van alle sosiale klasse , [31 ] Jainism kom in prominensie rondom dieselfde tyd gedurende die lewe van sy Model , Mahavira . [ 32] In 'n era van toenemende stedelike rykdom, beide gelowe gehou afstand te doen as 'n ideale, [33] en beide gevestigde langdurige kloosters. [34] Polities, deur die 3de eeu vC is die koninkryk van Magadha het geheg of verminder ander State na vore kom as die Mauryan Ryk [34] Die Ryk was een keer gedink om beheer het die meeste van die subkontinent met uitsondering van die verre suide, maar sy kern gebiede is nou te gewees het gedink geskei deur 'n groot outonome gebiede . [ 35] Die Maurya konings soveel is bekend vir hulle ryk gebou en bepaal die bestuur van die openbare lewe vir Ashoka die Grote se afstanddoening van militarisme en sy ver geslinger voorspraak van die Boeddhistiese dhamma . [36]

Die Sangam literatuur van die Tamil taal toon dat gedurende die tydperk 200 vC-200 CE, die suidelike skiereiland was regeer deur die Cheras , die Chola en die Pandyas dinastieë wat verhandel word op groot skaal met die Romeinse Ryk en met Wes- en Suid-Oos Asië [37] in die noorde van Indië gedurende dieselfde tyd, Hindoeïsme beweer patriargale beheer binne die gesin. [38] By die vierde en vyfde eeu CE, het die Gupta Ryk geskep het van 'n ingewikkelde administratiewe en belasting stelsel in die groter Ganges-Plain wat 'n model vir latere Indiese koninkryke. [39] Onder die Guptas, 'n hernude Hindoeïsme gebaseer toewyding eerder as die bestuur van die ritueel begin om homself te laat geld [ 40] en word weerspieël in ' n ??blom van beeldhouwerk en argitektuur, wat bevind het beskermhere onder ' n stedelike elite [41] Klassieke Sanskrit literatuur asook geblom, en die Indiese wetenskap , sterrekunde , medisyne, en wiskunde beduidende vooruitgang gemaak het, [ 41]

Middeleeuse Indië

Die Indiese vroeë Middeleeuse ouderdom (600 CE tot 1200 CE) is gedefinieer deur die plaaslike koninkryke en kulturele diversiteit . [42 ] Toe Harsa Kannauj, wat baie van die Ganges vlakte van 606 tot 647 CE geregeer het, het gepoog om suidwaarts uit te brei, is hy verslaan deur die Chalukya owerste van die Deccan . [43] Toe sy opvolger probeer om na die ooste uit te brei, hy is verslaan deur die Pala die koning van Bengale . [43 ] Toe die Chalukyas poging om suidwaarts uit te brei, hulle is verslaan deur die Pallavas uit verder suid, wat op sy beurt deur die gekant was teen Pandyas en die Chola van nog verder suid. [43] Geen heerser van hierdie tydperk was in staat om 'n ryk en konsekwent beheer lande veel verder as sy kern streek te skep . [42 ] Gedurende hierdie tyd, pastorale volke wie se land het skoongemaak te maak vir die groeiende landbou-ekonomie was geakkommodeer binne kaste samelewing, asook nuwe nie-tradisionele heersersklasse . [44 ] Die kastestelsel gevolglik begin om streeks verskille te toon. [ 44]

Die Brihadeeswarar Tempel in Thanjavur , in die staat van Tamil Nadu , is gebou deur die Chola in 1010 CE.

In die sesde en sewende eeu CE, het die eerste gewyde gesange in die Tamil taal geskep . [45 ] Dit was nageboots oral in Indië en het gelei tot die herlewing van die Hindoeïsme en die ontwikkeling van al die moderne tale van die subkontinent . [ 45] Indiese koninklikes, groot en klein , en die tempel wat hulle patronaat trek burgers in groot getalle na die hoofstede, wat ekonomiese hubs asook geword . 46] [Temple dorpe van verskillende groottes het begin om oral te vertoon as Indië ondergaan ' n ??ander verstedeliking. [ 46] Teen die agtste en negende eeue, die gevolge is duidelik elders sowel as Suid-Indiese kultuur en politieke stelsels word uitgevoer na Suidoos-Asië, in die besonder wat vandag is Thailand , Laos , Kambodja , Viëtnam , Maleisië en Java . [ 47 ] Indiese handelaars, geleerdes, en soms leërs was betrokke by die oordrag en Suid-Oos-Asiërs het die inisiatief geneem en met baie vreemdelingskap in die Indiese kweekskole en die vertaling van Boeddhiste en Hindoe tekste in hulle tale. [47]

Na die tiende eeu, Moslem Sentraal-Asiatiese nomadiese clans, die gebruik van vinnige perd kavallerie en die verhoging van groot leërs verenig deur etnisiteit en godsdiens, herhaaldelik oorrompel Suid-Asië se noordwestelike vlaktes, en gelei het uiteindelik tot die vestiging van die Islamitiese Delhi Sultanaat in 1206 . [48 ] Die Sultanaat was die grootste deel van Noord-Indië te beheer, en talle style in Suid-Indië te maak. Hoewel die sultanaat op die eerste ontwrigtend vir die Indiese elite, grootliks sy groot nie-Moslem onderwerp bevolking links na sy eie wette en gebruike. [49] Deur herhaaldelik repulsing van die Mongoolse Raiders in die dertiende eeu, die Sultanaat gered Indië van die vernietiging gesien in Wes-en Sentraal-Asië, en stel die toneel vir die eeue van die migrasie van die vlug soldate, geleer mans, mystici, handelaars, kunstenaars en ambagsmanne van die streek in Indië, waardeur die skep van 'n syncretic Indo-Islamitiese kultuur in die noorde. [50] Sultanaat se plunder en verswakking van die streeks-koninkryke van Suid-Indië, gebaan het die pad vir die inheemse Vijayanagara Ryk . [51] omhelzen 'n sterk Shaivite tradisie en gebou op die militêre tegnologie van die sultanaat, die ryk gekom het baie van die skiereiland Indië, te beheer [ 52] en die samelewing en kultuur van Suid-Indië te beïnvloed vir lank daarna nie. [51]

Vroeë moderne Indië

Skrifgeleerdes en kunstenaars in die Mughal-hof, 1590-1595.

In die vroeë sestiende eeu, die noorde van Indië, wat dan hoofsaaklik deur die Moslem-heersers regeer , [53 ] het weer aan die beter mobiliteit en vuurkrag van 'n nuwe generasie van die Sentraal-Asiatiese krygers. [ 54 ] Die Mogol Ryk, wat daartoe gelei het, het nie stamp dit kom uit die plaaslike gemeenskappe te regeer nie, maar eerder gebalanseerde en hulle deur nuwe administratiewe praktyke bedaar, [55] en diverse en inklusiewe regerende elite, [56] wat lei tot meer sistematiese, gesentraliseerde en 'n eenvormige reël. [57] vermy stam-effekte en Islamitiese identiteit, veral onder Akbar , die Mughals Verenigde hulle ver geslinger ryke deur lojaliteit, uitgedruk deur middel van 'n Persianized kultuur, na' n keiser wat het naby goddelike status. [ 56] Die Mughal staat se ekonomiese beleid, wat voort vloei die meeste inkomste uit die landbou, [ 58] oplê wat belasting betaal word in die goed gereguleerde silwer munt [59] veroorsaak boere en ambagsmanne groter markte te betree. [57] Die relatiewe vrede deur die ryk het tydens die grootste deel van die sewentiende eeu was 'n faktor in Indië se ekonomiese uitbreiding, [57] en het gelei tot groter beskermheerskap van die skildery , literêre vorme, tekstiele, en argitektuur . [60] nuwe samehangende sosiale groepe in Noord-en Wes-Indië, soos die Marathas, die Rajputs, en die Sikhs opgedoen militêre en beheerliggaam ambisies tydens die Mughal reël, wat deur samewerking of teenspoed, het hulle albei erkenning en militêre ervaring. [61] Uitbreiding handel tydens die Mughal reël het aanleiding gegee tot nuwe Indiese kommersiële en politieke elites in die suidelike en oostelike kus Indië . [61 ] Soos die ryk verbrokkel , baie onder hierdie elite was in staat om hul eie sake te soek en te beheer. [62]

Teen die vroeë 18de eeu, met die gees tussen kommersiële en politieke oorheersing word toenemend vervaag, 'n aantal van die Europese handelsmaatskappye, insluitende die Engelse Oos- Indië Maatskappy, buiteposte het gevestig op die Indië kus. [ 63] Die Oos-Indië Maatskappy se beheer van die see, die groter hulpbronne, en sy leër se meer gevorderde opleiding metodes en tegnologie, gelei dit na meer en meer buig sy militêre spiere en veroorsaak dit te word aantreklik aan 'n gedeelte van die Indiese elite; Hierdie twee elemente is cruciaal in die Maatskappy om die heerser van die Bengaalse -streek in 1765, en die negatief van die ander Europese maatskappye . [64] Die verdere toegang tot die rykdom van Bengale en die daaropvolgende verhoogde krag en grootte van sy weermag ontsper om dit te aanhangsel of onderdruk die meeste van Indië deur die 1820's. [65 ] Indië is nou nie meer die uitvoer vervaardig goedere as dit lank gehad het, maar in plaas die Britse Ryk die verskaffing van grondstowwe, en die meeste historici beskou dit aan die ware aanvang van Indië se koloniale tydperk word. [66] By hierdie tyd ook, met sy ekonomiese mag ernstig ingekort deur die Britse parlement en effektief nou 'n arm van die Britse administrasie, het die maatskappy begin om meer bewus te voer nie-ekonomiese arena, soos opvoeding, sosiale hervorming, en kultuur. [ 67]

Moderne Indië

Kaart van die Britse Indiese Ryk van die Imperial Gazet Teer van Indië, Oxford University Press, 1909

Afhangende van die historikus, Indië se moderne ouderdom begin onder andere in 1848, toe met die aanstelling van die Here Dalhousie as Goewerneur-generaal van die Maatskappy reël in Indië, veranderinge wat noodsaaklik is vir 'n moderne staat, insluitende die konsolidasie en afbakening van die soewereiniteit, die toesig van die bevolking , en die onderwys van die burgers, was in plek, en tegnologiese veranderinge, onder hulle, spoorweë, kanale, en die telegraaf was ingestel nie lank nadat word bekendgestel in Europa, [68] 1857, toe ontevredenheid met die Maatskappy se heerskappy, stel af deur diverse Resentments, wat ingesluit Britse sosiale hervormings, die felheid van die land belasting, en die vernedering van geland en prins aristokrasie, wat gelei het tot die Indiese rebellie van 1857 in baie dele van die noorde van Indië, [69] 1858, toe na die onderdrukking van die rebellie, die Britse regering het oor die direkte bestuur van Indië , en verkondig 'n unitêre staat, wat aan die een kant in die vooruitsig gestel' n beperkte en geleidelike Britse-styl parlementêre stelsel, maar aan die ander kant beskerm Indië se vorste en groot eienaars as 'n feodale beskerm; [ 70] tot en met 1885, toe die stigting van die Indian National Congress was die begin van 'n tydperk waarin die openbare lewe te voorskyn gekom by' n all-Indië vlak. [ 71]

Twee glimlaggende mans in klere op die grond sit met liggame wat die kyker in die gesig staar en met koppe na mekaar gedraai. Die jonger dra 'n wit Nehru cap, die ouderling is bles en dra' n bril. 'N half dosyn ander mense is in die agtergrond.
Jawaharlal Nehru (links) se eerste eerste minister van Indië geword het in 1947. Mahatma Gandhi (regs) was van 'n politieke en ideologiese leier gedurende die Indiese onafhanklikheid Beweging.

Hoewel die spits van die tegnologie en die kommersialisering van die landbou in die tweede helfte van die 19de eeu is gekenmerk deur ekonomiese terugslae-baie klein boere geword afhanklik is van die grille van ver markte, [ 72] Daar was 'n toename in die getal van die groot- skaal hongersnode , [73] , en ten spyte van die Indiese belastingbetalers blywende die risiko van die ontwikkeling van infrastruktuur, min industriële indiensneming was gegenereer vir Indiërs, [ 74 ]-was daar ook liefdediens effekte: kommersiële teelt, veral in die nuwe canalled Punjab, verhoogde voedselproduksie vir binnelandse verbruik, [75] die spoorweg-netwerk op voorwaarde dat 'n kritieke hongersnood verligting, [76] verminder veral die koste van die beweging van goedere, [76] en het gehelp om die ontluikende Indiese besit bedryf. [75 ] Na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, wat sommige miljoen Indiërs gedien het, [77] 'n nuwe tydperk begin, wat is gekenmerk is deur die Britse hervormings, maar ook die onderdrukkende wetgewing, deur meer kras Indiese oproepe vir selfregering, en deur die begin van' n geweldadige beweging van nie-samewerking, wat Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi sou die leier en 'n blywende simbool word. [ 78] Gedurende die 1930's, stadig wetgewende hervorming BEPAAL deur die Britse en die Indiese National Congress het oorwinnings in die verkiesings. [ 79] Maar die volgende dekade sal omring word met krisisse , wat ingesluit het die tweede wêreld oorlog , die Congress se finale druk van nie-samewerking en die oplewing van Moslem-nasionalisme-al die opgehoopte deur die onafhanklikheid van Indië in 1947, maar getemper deur die bloedige partisie van die subkontinent in twee state. [80 ]

Noodsaaklik vir Indië se self-beeld as 'n onafhanklike nasie was sy grondwet, wat in 1950 voltooi, wat sit in die plek' n soewereine, sekulêre, demokratiese Republiek . [81 ] In die 60 jaar sedert, Indië het het 'n gemengde sak van die suksesse en mislukkings. [82] Aan die positiewe kant, dit gebly het, 'n demokrasie met' n baie burgerlike vryhede, 'n aktivis Hooggeregshof, en' n onafhanklike pers; [82] liberalisering van die ekonomie in die 1990's het 'n groot stedelike middelklas, Indië getransformeer in een van die vinnigste groeiende ekonomieë in die wêreld, [83] en het sy globale invloed, en Indiese films, nuwe musiek en geestelike leringe, het meer bygedra tot die globale kultuur. [82] Maar aan die negatiewe kant, Indië is geweeg met skynbaar onwrikbare armoede, landelike en stedelike [82] deur godsdienstige en kaste-verwante geweld , [84] deur die oproeren van maoïstische geïnspireer Naxalites , [85] en onafhanklikheid in Jammu en Kasjmir , [86] Indië het onopgeloste territoriale dispute met die Mense se Republiek van China, wat toegeneem in die Chinees-Indiese Oorlog van 1962, [87] met Pakistan, wat tot gevolg gehad het in oorloë wat in 1947 , 1965 , 1971 en 1999 , [88] en kern wedywering wat gekom het om 'n kop in 1998. [89] Indië se volgehoue ??demokratiese vryhede, vir meer as 60 jaar is uniek onder die wêreld se nuwe nasies;. egter, ten spyte van die onlangse ekonomiese suksesse, vryheid van gebrek vir die benadeelde bevolking bly 'n doel nog bereik moet word [ 90]

Geografie

Kaart van Indië. Die meeste van Indië is geel (hoogte 100-1000 m). Sommige gebiede in die suide en die Midde-Ooste is bruin (bo 1000 m). Groot riviervalleie is groen (minder as 100 m).
Topografiese kaart van Indië.

Indië, die groot gedeelte van die Indiese subkontinent, bo- op die Indiese tektoniese plate, 'n minderjarige plaat binne die Indo- Australiese Plaat. [ 91] Indië se definisie van geologiese prosesse n aanvang 7-50 jaar gelede toe die Indiese subkontinent, dan deel van die suidelike superkontinent Gondwana , het die aftrap ' n northeastwards drift-blywende 50.000.000 jaar-oor die dan ongevormde Indiese Oseaan. [ 91] Die subkontinent se daaropvolgende botsing met die Eurasiese Plaat en subduksie onder dit gee aanleiding tot die Himalajas, die planeet se hoogste berge, wat abut Indië in die noorde en die noord-ooste . Die Kanchenjunga is die hoogste berg grens van Indië en Nepal . Die Nanda Devi is die tweede hoogste piek en die hoogste berg geleë is heeltemal binne Indië. [91] Die voormalige seebodem onmiddellik suid van die opkomende Himalayas, plaat-beweging het 'n groot trog, wat geleidelik met die rivier gedra sediment gevul is, [92 geskep ] vorm nou die Indo-Gangetic Plain . [93] Aan die weste lê die Thar Desert , wat afgesny is deur die Aravalli Range . [94]

Die oorspronklike Indiese plaat oorleef as skiereiland Indië, die oudste en geologies mees stabiele deel van Indië en strek so ver noord as die Satpura en Vindhya wissel in sentraal-Indië. Hierdie parallelle reekse loop van die Arabiese See kus in Gujarat in die weste aan die steenkool-ryk Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in die ooste. [95] In die suide van die res van die skiereiland landmassa, die Deccan Plateau, is weerskante op die weste en ooste deur die kus wissel, Wes-Ghats en Oos-Ghats ; [96] die plato bevat die oudste rotsformasies in Indië, sommige meer as een miljard jaar oud. Saamgestel in so mode, Indië lê in die noorde van die ewenaar tussen 6 ° 44 'en 35 ° 30' noorderbreedte [97] en 68 ° 7 en 97 ° 25 'Oos-lengtelyn. [98]

Die Himalaya-gebergte vorm die bergagtige landskap van die noorde van Indië. Hier gesien word, is die Kedar reeks agter die Kedarnath Temple, 'n gebied van godsdienstige en kulturele belang.

Indië se kus is 7517 km (4700 myl) lank; van hierdie afstand, 5423 km (3400 myl) behoort aan skiereiland Indië en 2094 km (1300 myl) aan die Andaman, Nicobar, en Lakshadweep Eilande. [99] Volgens die Indiese vloot hydro kaarte, die vasteland kus bestaan ??uit die volgende: 43% sandstrande, 11% rotsagtige kus insluitend kranse, en 46% wad of moerasagtige kus. [99]

Major Himalaja-oorsprong riviere wat aansienlik vloei deur Indië sluit in die Ganges (Ganga) en die Brahmaputra , beide van wat dreineer in die Baai van Bengale . [100] Belangrike sytakke van die Ganges sluit die Yamuna en die Kosi ; laasgenoemde se uiters lae helling rampspoedige vloede veroorsaak elke jaar. Groot skiereiland riviere, waarvan die steiler hellings voorkom dat hulle waters van die vloede, sluit in die Godavari , die Mahanadi , die Kaveri en die Krishna, wat ook in die Baai van Bengale dreineer , [ 101 ] en die Narmada en die Tapti, wat in die drein Arabiese See . [102] Onder noemenswaardige kus eienskappe van Indië die drassige Rann van kutch in Wes-Indië en die alluviale Sundarbans delta, wat Indië aandele met Bangladesh. [103] Indië het twee eiland groepe: die Lakshadweep , koraal atollen die kus van Indië se Suid- -westelike kus, en die Andaman Nicobar-eilande , 'n vulkaniese ketting in die Andamanse See [104] .

Indië se klimaat is sterk beïnvloed deur die Himalajas en die Thar Desert, wat albei ry die moes sons . [105] die Himalajas voorkom koue Sentraal-Asiatiese katabatiese winde waai in, hou die grootste deel van die Indiese subkontinent warmer as die meeste plekke op soortgelyke breedtegrade. [106] [107] Die Thar Desert speel 'n deurslaggewende rol in die aantrek van die vog-Laden die suidweste van die somer monsoon winde wat, tussen Junie en Oktober, bied die meeste van Indië se reënval. [ 105] Vier groot klimaats-groepe oorheers in Indië: tropiese nat , tropiese droë , subtropiese vogtige en bergagtige [108] .

Biodiversiteit

Die Lotus is die nasionale blom van Indië en word as heilig beskou deur die Hindoes en Boeddhiste . [109 ]

Lê binne die Indomalaya ecozone met drie Hotspots geleë binne sy gebied, Indië toon betekenisvolle biodiversiteit . [110] As een van die 17 megadiverse lande , is dit die tuiste van 7,6% van alle ander soogdier-, 12,6% van alle aviaire, 6.2% van alle reptiel 4.4% van alle amfibiese, 11,7% van alle vis, en 6,0% van alle soorte blom plante. [111] Baie ekostreke soos die shola woude toon hoë pryse van endemisme , oorpak, 33% van die Indiese plantspesies is endemies [ 112] Indië se woudbedekking strek van die tropiese reënwoud van die Andaman-eilande , Wes-Ghats , en die noordooste van Indië na die naaldbos van die Himalaya. Tussen hierdie twee uiterstes lê die TAT -gedomineerde klam bladwisselende woude van Oos-Indië, die tek -gedomineerde droë bladwisselende woude van Sentraal-en Suid-Indië, en die babul- gedomineerde doring bos van die sentrale Deccan-en Wes-Gangetic vlakte [113 ] Onder 12 % van Indië se landmassa is deur digte bosse bedek. [114] Belangrike Indiese bome sluit in die medisinale neem, wyd gebruik word in landelike Indiese kruiemiddels . Die pipal vyeboom was, het gewys op die seëls van Mohenjo-Daro , geskakeer Gautama Boeddha as hy verligting gesoek.

Baie Indiese spesies is afstammelinge van taksa oorsprong in Gondwana, wat die Indiese plaat geskei 'n lang tyd gelede. Federasie Indië se daaropvolgende beweging na en botsing met die Laurasian landmassa wat uit 'n massa uitruil van spesies. Maar, vulkanisme en klimaatsveranderinge 20 miljoen jaar gelede het veroorsaak dat die uitwissing van talle endemiese Indiese vorms. [115] Kort daarna, soogdiere ingeskryf Indië uit Asië deur twee zoogeographical pas aan weerskante van die opkomende Himalaya. [113] Gevolglik, onder Indiese spesies only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians. [ 111 ] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN -designated threatened species . [ 116 ] These include the Asiatic Lion , the Bengal Tiger , and the Indian white-rumped vulture , which nearly became extinct by ingesting the carrion of diclofenac -treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas , first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act [ 117 ] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; in addition, the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988. [ 118 ] Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries , India hosts thirteen biosphere reserves , [ 119 ] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves ; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention . [ 120 ]

Politiek

The Secretariat Building , in New Delhi , houses key government offices.

India is the most populous democracy in the world. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system , [ 123 ] it has six recognised national parties , including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties . [ 124 ] The Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" in Indian political culture , and the BJP centre-right or "conservative". For most of the period between 1950 – when India first became a republic – and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, [ 125 ] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalitions at the Centre. [ 126 ]

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957 and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru -led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi , who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977, and a new party, the Janata Party which had opposed the emergency was voted in. Its government proved short-lived, lasting just over three years. Back in power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated and succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi , who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front , won the elections; that government too proved short-lived lasting just under two years. [ 127 ] Elections were held again in 1991 in which no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress as the largest single party was able to form a minority government , led by PV Narasimha Rao . [ 128 ]

The two years after the general election of 1996 were years of political turmoil, with several short-lived alliances sharing power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two relatively longer-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee , became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term. [ 129 ] In the 2004 Indian general elections , again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming a successful coalition, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), with the support of left-leaning parties and MPs opposed to the BJP. The UPA coalition was returned to power in the 2009 general election , with increased numbers that ensured it no longer required external support from India's Communist parties . [ 130 ] That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a second consecutive five-year term. [ 131 ]

Regering

Indië National Symbols of India [ 132 ] [ 133 ]
Flag Tricolour
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vande Mataram
Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
Bird Indian Peacock
Aquatic animal Dolphin
Flower Lotus
Tree Banyan
Fruit Mango
Game Field hockey
Kalender Saka
River Ganges

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India . [ 134 ] It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy , in which " majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ." Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the federal government and the states . The government is regulated by checks and balances defined by Indian Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, [ 135 ] states in its preamble that India is a sovereign , socialist , secular , democratic republic . [ 136 ] India's form of government, traditionally described as 'quasi-federal' with a strong centre and weak states, [ 137 ] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic and social changes. [ 138 ]

The federal government is composed of three branches:

Administrative divisions

India is a federation composed of 28 states and 7 union territories . [ 151 ] All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi , have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the Centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act , states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. [ 152 ] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts . [ 153 ] The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.

Map of India showing its states and territories
The 28 states and 7 union territories of India

States:

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  1. Haryana
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Jammu and Kashmir
  4. Jharkhand
  5. Karnataka
  6. Kerala
  7. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  1. Rajasthan
  2. Sikkim
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Tripura
  5. Uttar Pradesh
  6. Uttarakhand
  7. West Bengal

Union Territories:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry


Buitelandse betrekkinge en die militêre

Two seated men converse. The first is dressed in Indian clothing and turban and sits before an Indian flag; the second is in a Western business suit and sits before a Russian flag.
India and Russia share an extensive economic, defence and technological relationship . [ 154 ] Shown here are Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh with President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8 Summit .

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly supported the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia and played a pioneering role in the Non-Aligned Movement . [ 155 ] In the late 1980s, India made two brief military interventions at the invitation of neighbouring countries, one by the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka and the other, Operation Cactus , in the Maldives . However, India has had a tense relationship with neighbouring Pakistan, and the two countries have gone to war four times, in 1947 , 1965 , 1971 and 1999 . The Kashmir dispute was the predominant cause of these wars, except in 1971 which followed the civil unrest in erstwhile East Pakistan . [ 156 ] After the India-China War of 1962 and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India proceeded to develop close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by late 1960s, the Soviet Union had emerged as India's largest arms supplier. [ 157 ]

Today, in addition to the continuing strategic relations with Russia , India has wide ranging defence relations with Israel and France . In recent years, India has played an influential role in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization . [ 158 ] The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in thirty-five UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. [ 159 ] India is also an active participant in various multilateral forums, most notably the East Asia Summit and the G8+5 . [ 160 ] [ 161 ] In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with the developing nations of South America, Asia and Africa. For about a decade now, India has also pursued a "Look East" policy which has helped it strengthen its partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan and South Korea on a wide range of issues but especially economic investment and regional security. [ 162 ] [ 163 ]

The HAL Tejas is a light supersonic fighter developed by the Aeronautical Development Agency and manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL). [ 164 ]

China's nuclear test of 1964 as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war convinced India to develop nuclear weapons of its own. [ 165 ] India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) nor the NPT , considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. [ 166 ] India maintains a " no first use " nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its " minimum credible deterrence " doctrine. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] It is also developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth generation fighter jet . [ 169 ] [ 170 ] Other major indigenous military development projects include Vikrant class aircraft carriers and Arihant class nuclear submarines . [ 171 ] [ 172 ]

Recently, India has also increased its economic, strategic and military cooperation with the United States and the European Union . [ 173 ] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India has become the world's sixth de facto nuclear weapons state . [ 174 ] Following the NSG waiver, India was also able to sign civilian nuclear energy cooperation agreements with other nations, including Russia, [ 175 ] France, [ 176 ] the United Kingdom , [ 177 ] and Canada . [ 178 ]

With 1.3 million active troops, the Indian military is the third largest in the world . [ 179 ] India's armed forces consists of an Indian Army , Navy , Air Force , and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces , the Coast Guard , and the Strategic Forces Command . [ 180 ] The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The official Indian defence budget for 2011 stands at US$36.03 billion (or 1.83% of GDP). [ 181 ] According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion, [ 182 ] In 2011 the annual defence budget increased by 11.6 per cent, [ 183 ] although this does not include money that goes to the military through other branches of government. [ 184 ] India has become the world's largest arms importer, receiving 9% of all international arms transfers during the period from 2006 to 2010. [ 185 ] Much of the military expenditure is focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean . [ 183 ]

Ekonomie

View from ground of a modern 30-story building.
The Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia's oldest and India's largest stock exchange by market capitalisation .

According to the International Monetary Fund , India is the world's tenth largest economy by market exchange rates with US$1.53 trillion and fourth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) with US$4.06 trillion. [ 9 ] With its average annual GDP growing at 5.8% for the past two decades, and at 10.4% during 2010, [ 186 ] India is also one of the fastest growing economies in the world . [ 187 ] However, the country ranks 138th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP . [ 9 ]

Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics . Widespread state intervention and regulation [ 188 ] caused the Indian economy to be largely closed to the outside world. After an acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 , the nation liberalised its economy and has since continued to move towards a free-market system , [ 189 ] [ 190 ] emphasizing both foreign trade and investment. [ 191 ] Consequently, India's economic model is now being described overall as capitalist . [ 190 ]

With 467 million workers, India has the world's second largest labour force . [ 192 ] The service sector makes up 54% of the GDP, the agricultural sector 28%, and the industrial sector 18%. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. [ 151 ] Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery and software. [ 151 ] By 2006, India's external trade had reached a relatively moderate proportion of GDP at 24%, up from 6% in 1985. [ 189 ] In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%; [ 193 ] India was the world's fifteenth largest importer in 2009 and the eighteenth largest exporter . [ 194 ] Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewelry, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures. [ 151 ] Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, chemicals. [ 151 ]

Tata Nano , the world's cheapest car. [ 195 ] India is the world's number one producer of basic cars . [ 196 ]

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% during the last few years, [ 189 ] India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the last decade. [ 197 ] Moreover, since 1985, India has moved 431 million of its citizens out of poverty, and by 2030, India's middle class numbers will grow to more than 580 million. [ 198 ] Although ranking 51st in global competitiveness , India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies. [ 199 ] With 7 of the world's top 15 technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States. [ 200 ] India's consumer market, currently the world's thirteenth largest , is expected to become fifth largest by 2030. [ 198 ] Its telecommunication industry , the world's fastest growing, added 227 million subscribers during 2010–11. [ 201 ] Its automobile industry , the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10, [ 202 ] and exports by 36% during 2008–09. [ 203 ]

Despite impressive economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people living below the World Bank 's international poverty line of $1.25/day, [ 204 ] the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005. [ 205 ] Half of the children in India are underweight , [ 206 ] and 46% of children under the age of three suffer from malnutrition . [ 204 ] Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest. [ 207 ] Corruption in India is perceived to have increased significantly, [ 208 ] with one report estimating the illegal capital flows since independence to be US$462 billion. [ 209 ] Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from U$329 in 1991, when economic liberalization began, to US$1,265 in 2010, and is estimated to increase to US$2,110 by 2016; however, it has always remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia , Iran , Malaysia , Philippines , Sri Lanka , and Thailand , and is expected to remain so in the near future. [ 210 ]

According to a 2011 PwC report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity will overtake Japan's during 2011 and the United States by 2045. [ 211 ] Moreover, during the next four decades, India's economy is expected to grow at an average of 8%, making the nation potentially the world's fastest growing major economy until 2050. [ 211 ] The report also highlights some of the key factors behind high economic growth – a young and rapidly growing working age population; the growth of the manufacturing sector due to rising levels of education and engineering skills; and sustained growth of the consumer market because of a rapidly growing middle class. [ 211 ] However, the World Bank cautions that for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure , agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education , energy security , and public health and nutrition. [ 212 ]

Demografie

Map of India. High population density areas (above 1000 persons per square kilometer) are the Lakshadweep Islands, Kolkata and other parts of the Ganga (Ganges) river basin, Mumbai, Bangalore, and the southwest coast. Low density areas (below 100) include the western desert, east Kashmir, and the eastern frontier.
Population density map of India.

With 1,210,193,422 citizens reported in the 2011 provisional Census, [ 8 ] India is the world's second most populous country. India's population grew at 1.76% per annum during the last decade, [ 8 ] down from 2.13% per annum in the previous decade (1991–2001). [ 213 ] The human sex ratio in India, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males, [ 8 ] the lowest since independence. India's median age was 24.9 in the 2001 census. [ 180 ] Medical advances of the last 50 years as well increased agricultural productivity brought about by the " green revolution " have caused India's population to grow rapidly. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] The percentage of Indian population living in urban areas has grown as well, increasing by 31.2% from 1991 to 2001. [ 216 ] Despite this, in 2001 over 70% of India's population continued to live in rural areas. [ 217 ] [ 218 ] According to the 2001 census, there are 27 million-plus cities in India , [ 216 ] with Mumbai , Delhi and Kolkata being the largest .

India's overall literacy rate in 2011 is 74.04%, its female literacy rate standing at 65.46% and its male at 82.14%. [ 8 ] The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate, whereas Bihar has the lowest. [ 219 ] [ 220 ] India continues to face several public health-related challenges. [ 221 ] [ 222 ] According to the World Health Organization, 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated water or breathing polluted air. [ 223 ] There are about 60 physicians per 100,000 people in India. [ 224 ]

The Indian Constitution recognises 212 scheduled tribal groups which together constitute about 7.5% of the country's population. [ 225 ] The 2001 census reported the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism , with over 800 million (80.5%) of the population recording it as their religion. Other religious groups has the world's third-largest Muslim population and the largest Muslim population for a non- Muslim majority country .

India is home to two major language families : Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families. India has no national language . [ 227 ] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, [ 228 ] is the official language of the union . [ 229 ] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a 'subsidiary official language;' [ 230 ] it is also important in education , especially as a medium of higher education . Every state and union territory has its own official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 21 "scheduled languages".

Culture

The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial to his deceased wife Mumtaz Mahal . It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value". [ 231 ]

Formative in India's 4,500 years old culture [ 232 ] is the Vedic age in which were laid the foundation of Hindu philosophy , mythology , literary traditions , beliefs and practices, such as dhárma , kárma , yóga and mok?a ; [ 233 ] distinctive in this culture are its diverse religions , which include Hinduism , Sikhism , Islam , Christianity and Jainism . [ 234 ] The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by the various schools of thought including those of the Upanishads , [ 235 ] the Yoga Sutras , the Bhakti movement , [ 234 ] and by Buddhist philosophy [ 236 ]

Indian architecture represents the diversity of Indian culture. Much of it, including notable monuments such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal architecture and South Indian architecture , comprises a blend of ancient and varied local traditions from several parts of the country and abroad. [ 237 ] Vernacular architecture also displays notable regional variation.

Indian cuisine is best known for its delicate use of herbs and spices and for its tandoori grilling techniques. The tandoor , a clay oven in use for almost 5,000 years in India, is known for its ability to grill meats to an 'uncommon succulence' and for the puffy flatbread known as the naan . [ 238 ] The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east), wheat (predominantly in the north) [ 239 ] and lentils. [ 240 ] Many spices which are consumed world wide are originally native to the Indian subcontinent. Chili pepper which was introduced by the Portuguese is widely used in Indian cuisine. [ 241 ]

The earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1,400 BCE and 1,200 AD, were in the Sanskrit language . [ 242 ] [ 243 ] Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics such as Mah?bh?rata and Ramayana , the dramas of Kalidasa such as the Abhijñ?na??kuntalam (The Recognition of ?akuntal?) , and poetry such as the Mah?k?vya . [ 244 ] Developed between 600 BCE and 300 AD in Southern India, the Sangam literature consisting of 2,381 poems is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil literature . [ 245 ] [ 246 ] [ 247 ] From the 14th century AD to 18th century AD, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kab?r , Tuls?d?s and Guru N?nak . This period was characterised by varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression and as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. [ 248 ] In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. During the 20th century, Indian literature was heavily influenced by the works of universally acclaimed Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore . [ 249 ]

Society and traditions

The Swaminarayan movement is closely associated with the culture and the linguistic traditions of the Gujarati people . [ 250 ] Shown here is the Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi , the world's largest Hindu temple complex. [ 251 ]

Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as j?tis or castes . [ 252 ] Several influential social reform movements, such as the Brahmo Samaj , the Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission , have played a pivotal role in the emancipation of Dalits (or "untouchables") and other lower-caste communities in India. [ 253 ] However, the majority of Dalits continue to live in segregation and are often persecuted and discriminated against. [ 254 ]

Traditional Indian family values are highly valued, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. [ 255 ] An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family members. [ 256 ] Marriage is thought to be for life, [ 256 ] and the divorce rate is extremely low. [ 257 ] Child marriage is still a common practice, more so in rural India, with more than half of women in India marrying before the legal age of 18. [ 258 ]

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include Diwali , Ganesh Chaturthi , Thai Pongal , Holi , Durga Puja , Eid ul-Fitr , Bakr-Id , Christmas , and Vaisakhi . [ 259 ] [ 260 ] India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories – Republic Day , Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti . Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states.

Traditional Indian dress varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta - pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. [ 261 ] The wearing of delicate jewellery, modelled on real flowers worn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 5,000 years; gemstones are also worn in India as talismans. [ 262 ]

Music, dance, theatre and cinema

Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music largely encompasses the two genres – North Indian Hindustani , South Indian Carnatic traditions and their various offshoots in the form of regional folk music. [ 263 ] Regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music ; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter.

Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of West Bengal , Jharkhand, sambalpuri of Orissa, the ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama . These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu , kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh , manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam. [ 264 ]

Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. [ 265 ] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of Maharashtra, the burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka. [ 266 ] The Indian film industry is the most watched film industry in the world. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] Established traditions exist in Assamese , Bengali , Hindi , Kannada , Malayalam , Marathi , Oriya , Tamil , and Telugu language cinemas. [ 269 ] South India 's cinema industries account for more than 75% of total film revenues. [ 270 ]

Sport

India's official national sport is field hockey , administered by Hockey India . The Indian hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and 8 gold , 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games, making it one of the world's most successful national hockey teams ever. Cricket , however, is by far the most popular sport; [ 271 ] the India cricket team won the 1983 and the 2011 World Cups, 2007 ICC World Twenty20 , and shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka . Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy , the Duleep Trophy , the Deodhar Trophy , the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy . In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League , a Twenty20 competition.

Cricketers in a game in front of nearly-full stands.
A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

India is home to several traditional sports which originated in the country and continue to remain fairly popular. These include kabaddi , kho kho , pehlwani and gilli-danda . Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts , such as Kalarippayattu , Yuddha , Silambam and Varma Kalai , originated in India. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are India's highest awards for achievements in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.

Chess , commonly held to have originated in India , is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian Grandmasters . [ 272 ] Tennis has also become increasingly popular, owing to the victories of the India Davis Cup team and the success of Indian tennis players . [ 273 ] India has a strong presence in shooting sports , winning several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships and the Commonwealth Games. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] Other sports in which Indian sports-persons have won numerous awards or medals at international sporting events include badminton , [ 276 ] boxing [ 277 ] and wrestling . [ 278 ] [ 279 ] Football is a popular sport in northeastern India , West Bengal , Goa , Tamil Nadu and Kerala . [ 280 ]

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, such as the 1951 and the 1982 Asian Games , the 1987 , 1996 , 2011 Cricket World Cups, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games , the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy , the 2010 Hockey World Cup and the 2010 Commonwealth Games . Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open , Mumbai Marathon , Delhi Half Marathon and the Indian Masters .

Sien ook


Notas

  1. ^ "State Emblem - Inscription " , India 2010: A reference manual ( National Informatics Centre (NIC), Government of India ), 2010 , http://www.india.gov.in/knowindia/state_emblem.php , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  2. ^ " National Anthem – Know India portal" , India 2010: A reference manual (National Informatics Centre(NIC), Government of India), 2010 , http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_anthem.php , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  3. ^ " National Song – Know India portal" , India 2010: A reference manual (National Informatics Centre(NIC)), 2010 , http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_song.php , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  4. ^ "Constituent Assembly of India – Volume XII" , Constituent Assembly of India: Debates (National Informatics Centre(NIC), Government of India), 24 January 1950 , http://parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/debates/vol12p1.htm , retrieved 17 July 2011 , "The composition consisting of the words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it."  
  5. ^ "The Union: Official Language" , Department of Official Language, Government of India (National Informatics Centre(NIC), Government of India), 2010 , http://india.gov.in/knowindia/official_language.php , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  6. ^ There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court , Times Of India, 6 January retrieved 17 July 2011  
  7. ^ a b "India at a Glance" , Know India Portal (National Informatics Centre(NIC), Government of India) , http://india.gov.in/knowindia/india_at_a_glance.php , retrieved 7 December 2007  
  8. ^ a b c d e "Provisional Population Totals – Census 2011" , Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), 2011 , http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/indiaatglance.html , retrieved 29 March 2011  
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "India" . Internasionale Monetêre Retrieved 26 May 2011 .  
  10. ^ "Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index" , The World Factbook ( CIA ), 15 May retrieved 6 June 2008  
  11. ^ (PDF) Human Development Report 2010. Human development index trends: Table G , The United Nations, 2010 , http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf , retrieved 4 November 2010  
  12. ^ "Total Area of India" (PDF), Country Studies , India ( Library of CongressFederal Research Division ), December 2004 , http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/India.pdf , retrieved 3 September 2007 , "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km 2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km 2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km 2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km 2 (1,147,960 sq mi)."  
  13. ^ Stein 2008 , pp. 16–17
  14. ^ Mohammada, Malika (2007), The foundations of the composite culture in India , Aakar Books, ISBN 8189833189 , http://books.google.com/?id=dwzbYvQszf4C&printsec=frontcover  
  15. ^ "India" , Oxford English Dictionary , Oxford University Press, 2011 , http://www.oed.com/ , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  16. ^ Britannica Educational (2010), Kuiper, Kathleen, ed., Culture of India , Rosen Publishing Group, p. 86, ISBN 1615302034 , http://books.google.com/?id=LiqloV4JnNUC  
  17. ^ (PDF) Constitution of India , 29 July 2008 , http://lawmin.nic.in/coi/coiason29july08.pdf , retrieved 17 July 2011 , "Article 1(1): "India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.""  
  18. ^ Hindustan , Encyclopædia Britannica , Inc., 2011 , http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266465/Hindustan , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  19. ^ Singh 2009 , p. 64
  20. ^ Singh 2009 , pp. 89–93
  21. ^ Possehl 2002 , pp. 24–25
  22. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , pp. 21–23
  23. ^ a b Singh 2009 , p. 181
  24. ^ Possehl 2002 , p. 2
  25. ^ a b c Singh 2009 , p. 255
  26. ^ a b Singh 2009 , pp. 186–187
  27. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , pp. 41–43
  28. ^ a b Singh 2009 , pp. 250–251
  29. ^ Singh 2009 , p. 319, Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , pp. 53–54
  30. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , pp. 54–56
  31. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , pp. 54–56, Stein 2008 , pp. 67–68
  32. ^ Singh 2009 , pp. 312–313
  33. ^ Singh 2009 , p. 300
  34. ^ a b Singh 2009 , p. 319
  35. ^ Stein 2008 , pp. 78–79, Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , p. 70
  36. ^ Singh 2009 , p. 367, Kulke & Rothermun 2002 , p. 63
  37. ^ Stein 2008 , pp. 89–90, Singh 2009 , pp. 408–415
  38. ^ Stein 2008 , pp. 92–95, Singh 2009 , p. 319
  39. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2002 , pp. 89–91, Singh 2009 , p. 545
  40. ^ Stein 2008 , pp. 98–99
  41. ^ a b Singh 2009 , p. 545
  42. ^ a b Stein 2008 , p. 132
  43. ^ a b c Stein 2008 , pp. 119–120
  44. ^ a b Stein 2008 , pp. 121–122
  45. ^ a b Stein 2008 , p. 123
  46. ^ a b Stein 2008 , p. 124
  47. ^ a b Stein 2008 , pp. 127–128
  48. ^ Ludden 2002 , p. 68
  49. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 47, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 6
  50. ^ Ludden 2002 , p. 67, Asher & Talbot 2006 , pp. 50–51
  51. ^ a b Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 53
  52. ^ Metcalf Metcalf , p. 12
  53. ^ Robb 2001 , p. 80
  54. ^ Stein 2008 , p. 164
  55. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 115, Robb 2001 , pp. 90–91
  56. ^ a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 17
  57. ^ a b c Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 152
  58. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 158
  59. ^ Stein 2008 , p. 169
  60. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 186
  61. ^ a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 23–24
  62. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 256
  63. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 286, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 44–49
  64. ^ Robb 2001 , pp. 98–100, Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 286, Ludden 2002 , pp. 128–132, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 51–55
  65. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 68–71
  66. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 286
  67. ^ Asher & Talbot 2006 , p. 289
  68. ^ Robb 2002 , pp. 151–152, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 94–99, Brown 1994 , p. 83, Peers 2006 , p. 50
  69. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 100–103, Brown 1994 , pp. 85–86
  70. ^ Stein 2008 , p. 239, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 103–108
  71. ^ Robb 2002 , p. 183, Sarkar 1983 , pp. 1–4, Copland 2001 , pp. ix–x, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 123
  72. ^ Stein 2001 , p. 260
  73. ^ Bose & Jalal 2003 , p. 117
  74. ^ Stein 2001 , p. 258
  75. ^ a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 126
  76. ^ a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 97
  77. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 163
  78. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 167
  79. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 195–197
  80. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 203
  81. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 231
  82. ^ a b c d Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 265–266
  83. ^ "Briefing Rooms: India" , Economic Research Service (ERS) ( United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)), 17 December 2009 , http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/India/ , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  84. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 266–270
  85. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 253
  86. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 274
  87. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 247–248
  88. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 248–247
  89. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , pp. 293–295
  90. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006 , p. 304
  91. ^ a b c Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C. (2005), "Greater India", Earth-Science Reviews 72 (3–4): 170–173, doi : 10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.07.005  
  92. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 7.
  93. ^ Prakash, B.; Kumar, Sudhir; Rao, M. Someshwar; Giri, SC (2000), "Holocene tectonic movements and stress field in the western Gangetic plains" (PDF), Current Science 79 (4): 438–449 , http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug252000/prakash.pdf  
  94. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 11.
  95. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 8.
  96. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , pp. 9–10.
  97. ^ India's northernmost point is the region of the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (including the Northern Areas currently administered by Pakistan) to be its territory, and therefore assigns the longitude 37° 6' to its northernmost point.
  98. ^ Government of India 2007 , p. 1
  99. ^ a b Kumar, V. Sanil; Pathak, KC; Pednekar, P.; Raju, NSN (2006), "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF), Current Science 91 (4): 530–536 , http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/350/1/Curr_Sci_91_530.pdf  
  100. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 15
  101. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 16
  102. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 17
  103. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 12
  104. ^ Dikshit & Schwartzberg 2007 , p. 13
  105. ^ a b Chang 1967 , pp. 391–394
  106. ^ Posey 1994 , p. 118
  107. ^ Wolpert 2003 , p. 4
  108. ^ Heitzman & Worden 1996 , p. 97
  109. ^ Griffiths, Mark (2010), The Lotus Quest: In Search of the Sacred Flower , Macmillan, p.  
  110. ^ "Hotspots by region" , Biodiversity Hotspots (Conservation International), 2007 , http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/hotspots_by_region/Pages/default.aspx , retrieved 28 February 2011  
  111. ^ a b Puri, SK. "Biodiversity Profile of India (Text Only)" . http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/cesmg/indiabio.html . Retrieved 20 June 2007 .  
  112. ^ Botanical Survey of India; RK Basak; India. Dept. of Environment (1983), Botanical Survey of India: Account of its Establishment, Development & Activities , p. 24 , http://books.google.com/books?id=yXAVcgAACAAJ , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  113. ^ a b Tritsch, Mark F. (3 September 2001), Wildlife of India , Harper Collins, ISBN 9780007110629 , http://books.google.com/books?id=aNRQAAAACAAJ , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  114. ^ Fisher, William F. (1995), Toward sustainable development?: struggling over India's Narmada River , ME Sharpe, p. 434, ISBN 9781563243417 , http://books.google.com/books?id=n-iwqh2hS9kC&pg=PA434 , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  115. ^ Karanth, K. Praveen (25 March 2006), "Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota" (PDF), Current Science (Indian Academy of Science) 90 (6): 789–792 , http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/mar252006/789.pdf , retrieved 18 May 2011  
  116. ^ Georgina M. Mace; World Conservation Monitoring Centre; International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Species Survival Commission (1993), 1994 IUCN red list of threatened animals , IUCN, p. 4, ISBN 9782831701943 , http://books.google.com/books?id=dyy0HilL9ecC&pg=PR4 , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  117. ^ "Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972" , Ministry of Environments and Forests (Government of India), 9 September 1972 , http://envfor.nic.in/legis/wildlife/wildlife1.html , retrieved 25 July 2011  
  118. ^ "Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988" (PDF), Department of Environment and Forests (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), 1988 , http://forest.and.nic.in/fca1980.pdf , retrieved 25 July 2011  
  119. ^ "Biosphere Reserves of India" , CPR Environment Education Centre (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India) , http://www.cpreec.org/pubbook-biosphere.htm , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  120. ^ (PDF) The List of Wetlands of International Importance , The Secretariat of the Convention of on Wetlands, 4 June 2007, p. 18, archived from the original on 21 June 2007 , http://web.archive.org/web/20070621011113/http://www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf , retrieved 20 June 2007  
  121. ^ "World's Largest Democracy to Reach One Billion Persons on Independence Day" , United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (United Nations: Population Division ) , http://www.un.org/esa/population/pubsarchive/india/ind1bil.htm , retrieved 6 December 2007  
  122. ^ Country profile: India , BBC, 9 January 2007 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm , retrieved 21 March 2007  
  123. ^ Peter J. Burnell; Peter Calvert (1999), The resilience of democracy: persistent practice, durable idea , Taylor & Francis, p. 125, ISBN 9780714680262 , http://books.google.com/books?id=hv6TkML5_HAC&pg=PA271 , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  124. ^ "Current recognised parties" (PDF), Election Commission of India , 14 March 2009 , http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/ElectoralLaws/OrdersNotifications/Symbols_Sep_2009.pdf , retrieved 5 July 2010  
  125. ^ Sarkar, Nurul Islam (1 January 2007), Sonia Gandhi: tryst with India , Atlantic Publishers & Dist, p. 84, ISBN 9788126907441 , http://books.google.com/books?id=26flsWUf8fkC , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  126. ^ Chander, N. Jose (1 January 2004), Coalition politics: the Indian experience , Concept Publishing Company, p. 117, ISBN 9788180690921 , http://books.google.com/books?id=G_QtMGIczhMC&pg=PA117 , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  127. ^ Bhambhri, Chandra Prakash (1 May 1992), Politics in India, 1991-92 , Shipra Publications, pp. 118, 143, ISBN 9788185402178 , http://books.google.com/books?id=pf5HAAAAMAAJ , retrieved 20 July 2011  
  128. ^ Narasimha Rao passes away , Chennai, India: The Hindu , 24 December 2004 , http://www.hindu.com/2004/12/24/stories/2004122408870100.htm , retrieved 2 November 2008  
  129. ^ Dunleavy, Patrick; Diwakar, Rekha; and Dunleavy, Christopher (PDF), The effective space of party competition , London School of Economics and Political Science , http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/government/PSPE/pdf/PSPE_WP5_07.pdf , retrieved 1 October 2007  
  130. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , p. 384
  131. ^ Second UPA win, a crowning glory for Sonia's ascendancy , Business Standard , 16 May retrieved 13 June 2009  
  132. ^ "National Symbols of India" . Know India . National Informatics Centre, Government of India . http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_symbols.php . Retrieved 2009-09-27 .  
  133. ^ "River dolphin declared national aquatic animal" . The Hindu . October 7, 2009 . http://www.hindu.com/2009/10/07/stories/2009100757590400.htm . Retrieved 2009-10-11 .  
  134. ^ Bishop, Greg (29 April 2010), India , The New York Times , http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/india/index.html , retrieved 8 June 2010  
  135. ^ Pylee, Moolamattom Varkey (2004), "The Longest Constitutional Document" , Constitutional Government in India (2nd ed.), S. Chand , p. 4, ISBN 8121922038 , http://books.google.com/?id=veDUJCjr5U4C&pg=PA4&dq=India+longest+constitution , retrieved 31 October 2007  
  136. ^ Dutt, Sagarika (1998), "Identities and the Indian state: An overview", Third World Quarterly 19 (3): 411–434, doi : 10.1080/01436599814325   at p. 421.
  137. ^ Wheare, KC (1964), Federal Government (4th ed.), Oxford University Press , p. 28  
  138. ^ Echeverri-Gent, John (2002), "Politics in India's Decentred Polity", in Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip, Quickening the Pace of Change , India Briefing, London: ME Sharpe, pp. 19–53., ISBN 076560812X   at pp. 19–20; Sinha, Aseema (2004), "The Changing Political Economy of Federalism in India", India Review 3 (1): 25–63, doi : 10.1080/14736480490443085   at pp. 25–33.
  139. ^ a b c Sharma, Ram (1950), "Cabinet Government in India", Parliamentary Affairs 4 (1): 116–126  
  140. ^ "Election of President" , The Constitution Of India (Constitution Society) , http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05054.html , retrieved 2 September 2007 , "The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college."  
  141. ^ Gledhill, Alan (30 March 1970), The Republic of India: the development of its laws and constitution , Greenwood Press, p. 112, ISBN 9780837128139 , http://books.google.com/books?id=cHAjPQAACAAJ , retrieved 21 July 2011  
  142. ^ "Tenure of President's office" , The Constitution Of India (Constitution Society) , http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05056.html , retrieved 2 September 2007 , "The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office."  
  143. ^ "Appointment of Prime Minister and Council of Ministers" , The Constitution Of India (Constitution Society) , http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05075.html , retrieved 2 September 2007 , "The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister."  
  144. ^ Mathew, KM (1 January 2003), Manorama yearbook, 2003 , Malayala Manorama Co., p. 524, ISBN 9788190046183 , http://books.google.com/books?id=jDaLQwAACAAJ , retrieved 21 July 2011  
  145. ^ Gledhill, Alan (30 March 1970), The Republic of India: the development of its laws and constitution , Greenwood Press, p. 127, ISBN 9780837128139 , http://books.google.com/books?id=cHAjPQAACAAJ , retrieved 21 July 2011  
  146. ^ a b c d Our Parliament A brief description of the Indian Parliament , www.parliamentofindia.gov.in, archived from the original on 19 August retrieved 16 June 2007  
  147. ^ a b Neuborne, Burt (2003), "The Supreme Court of India", International Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (1): 476–510, doi : 10.1093/icon/1.3.476   p.478.
  148. ^ Supreme Court of India, Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court , National Informatics Centre , http://supremecourtofindia.nic.in/jurisdiction.htm , retrieved 13 May 2011  
  149. ^ Sripati, Vuayashri (1998), "Toward Fifty Years of Constitutionalism and Fundamental Rights in India: Looking Back to See Ahead (1950–2000)", American University International Law Review 14 (2): 413–496   , pp. 423–424.
  150. ^ Pylee, Moolamattom Varkey (2004), "The Union Judiciary: The Supreme Court" , Constitutional Government in India (2nd ed.), S. Chand , p. retrieved 2 November 2007  
  151. ^ a b c d e (PDF) Country Profile: India , Library of CongressFederal Research Division , December 2004 , http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/India.pdf , retrieved 24 June 2007  
  152. ^ "States Reorganisation Act, 1956" , Constitution of India (Commonwealth Legal Information Institute) , http://www.commonlii.org/in/legis/num_act/sra1956250/ , retrieved 31 October 2007   ; See also: Political integration of India .
  153. ^ "Districts of India" , Government of India ( National Informatics Centre (NIC) ) , http://districts.gov.in/ , retrieved 25 November 2007  
  154. ^ 30/12/2005-India-Russia relations, an overview , Embassy of India, Moscow , http://indianembassy.ru/cms/index.php?Itemid=449&id=551&option=com_content&task=view , retrieved 15 February 2009  
  155. ^ "The Non-Aligned Movement: Description and History" , nam.gov.za (The Non-Aligned Movement), 21 September 2001 , http://www.nam.gov.za/background/history.htm , retrieved 23 August 2007  
  156. ^ Gilbert, Martin (17 December 2002), A History of the Twentieth Century: The Concise Edition of the Acclaimed World History , HarperCollins, pp. 486–487, ISBN 9780060505943 , http://books.google.com/books?id=jhwY1j8Ao3kC&pg=PA486 , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  157. ^ Sharma, Shri Ram (1 January 1999), India-USSR Relations 1947-71: (From Ambivalence to Steadfastness) PART-I , Discovery Publishing House, p. 56, ISBN 9788171414864 , http://books.google.com/books?id=vTEge1JWK8oC , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  158. ^ (PDF) India's negotiation positions at the WTO , November 2005 , http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/genf/50205.pdf , retrieved 23 August 2010  
  159. ^ "India and the United Nations: Peacekeeping and peacebuilding" , Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations (United Nations) , http://www.un.int/india/india_and_the_un_pkeeping.html , retrieved 22 April 2006  
  160. ^ Analysts Say India'S Power Aided Entry Into East Asia Summit. | Goliath Business News , Goliath.ecnext.com, 29 July 2005 , http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4519133/ANALYSTS-SAY-INDIA-S-POWER.html , retrieved 21 November 2009  
  161. ^ Alford, Peter (7 July 2008), G8 plus 5 equals power shift , The retrieved 21 November 2009  
  162. ^ Anjali, Ghosh (1 September 2009), India's Foreign Policy , Pearson Education India, pp. 282–289, ISBN 9788131710258 , http://books.google.com/books?id=Y32u4JMroQgC , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  163. ^ Sisodia, NS; Naidu, GVC; Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (2005), Changing security dynamic in Eastern Asia: focus on Japan , Bibliophile South Asia, pp. 1–8, ISBN 9788186019528 , http://books.google.com/books?id=jSgfLG3Ib9wC , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  164. ^ "India gets its first homegrown fighter jet" , RIA Novosti , 10 January 2011 , http://en.rian.ru/world/20110110/162090932.html , retrieved 1 April 2009  
  165. ^ Perkovich, George (26 February 2002), India's nuclear bomb: the impact on global proliferation , University of California Press, pp. 60–86, 106–125, ISBN 9780520232105 , http://books.google.com/books?id=UDA9dUryS8EC , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  166. ^ Kumar, A. Vinod (1 May 2010), "Reforming the NPT to include India" , Bulletin of Atomic Scientists , http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/features/reforming-the-npt-to-include-india , retrieved 1 Nov 2010  
  167. ^ Nair, Vijai K. (PDF), No More Ambiguity: India's Nuclear Policy , archived from the original on 27 September 2007 , http://web.archive.org/web/20070927041401/http://www.afsa.org/fsj/oct02/nair.pdf , retrieved 7 June 2007  
  168. ^ Pandit, Rajat (27 July 2009), N-submarine to give India crucial third leg of nuke triad , Times of retrieved 10 March 2010  
  169. ^ Russia and India fix T-50 fighter design contract cost at $295 mln , RIA Novosti, 16 December 2010 , http://en.rian.ru/world/20101216/161800857.html , retrieved 14 January 2011  
  170. ^ India successfully test-fires interceptor missile , Times of India, 26 Jul 26 retrieved 14 January 2011  
  171. ^ PM launches INS Arihant in Visakhapatnam , Times of India, 26 July retrieved 3 June 2011  
  172. ^ "Indigenous Aircraft Carrier's nucleus ready" , dna.india.com (Daily News and Analysis), 7 October 2010 , http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_indigenous-aircraft-carrier-s-nucleus-ready_1448720 , retrieved 14 January 2011  
  173. ^ "India, Europe Strategic Relations" , Europa: Summaries of EU Legislation (European Union), 8 April retrieved 14 January 2011  
  174. ^ India, US sign 123 Agreement , Times of India, 11 October retrieved 21 July 2011  
  175. ^ Russia agrees India nuclear deal , BBC News, 11 February 2009 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7883223.stm , retrieved 22 August 2010  
  176. ^ India, France agree on civil nuclear cooperation , Rediff.com, 25 January 2008 , http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jan/25france.htm , retrieved 22 August 2010  
  177. ^ UK, India sign civil nuclear accord , Reuters, 13 February retrieved 22 August 2010  
  178. ^ Curry, Bill (27 June 2010), Canada signs nuclear deal with India , The Globe and retrieved 13 May 2011  
  179. ^ Ripsman, Norrin M.; Paul, TV (18 March 2010), Globalization and the national security state , Oxford University Press US, p. 130, ISBN 9780195393903 , http://books.google.com/books?id=7P87HIh9ajMC&pg=PA130 , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  180. ^ a b "The World Factbook: India" , CIA Factbook , 19 July 2011 , https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  181. ^ Behera, Laxman K. (7 March 2011), Budgeting for India's Defence: An Analysis of Defence Budget 2011–12 , Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses , http://www.idsa.in/idsacomments/IndiasDefenceBudget2011-12_lkbehera_070311 , retrieved 4 April 2011  
  182. ^ Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (8 August 2008), SIPRI Yearbook 2008: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security , Oxford University Press US, p. 178, ISBN 9780199548958 , http://books.google.com/books?id=EAyQ9KCJE2gC&pg=PA178 , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  183. ^ a b Miglani, Sanjeev (28 February 2011), With an eye on China, India steps up defence spending , Reuters , http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/28/india-budget-military-idUSSGE71R02Y20110228 , retrieved 6 July 2011  
  184. ^ Shukla, Ajai (5 March 2011), China matches India's expansion in military spending , Business retrieved 6 July 2011  
  185. ^ India world's largest arms importer according to new SIPRI data on international arms transfers , Stockholm International Peace Research Initiative, 14 March 2011 , http://www.sipri.org/media/pressreleases/armstransfers , retrieved 4 April 2011  
  186. ^ (PDF) World Economic Outlook Update , International Monetary Fund, June 2011, p. 2 , http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/update/02/pdf/0611.pdf , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  187. ^ Vanaik, Achin (26 June 2006), "The Puzzle of India's Growth" , The Telegraph, Kolkata (Transnational Institute) , http://www.tni.org//archives/archives_vanaik_growth , retrieved 15 September 2008  
  188. ^ India: the economy , British Broadcasting Corporation, 12 February 1998 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/55427.stm , retrieved 23 August 2010  
  189. ^ a b c (PDF) Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief , OECD , October 2007 , http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/52/39452196.pdf , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  190. ^ a b Gargan, Edward A. (15 August 1992), India Stumbles in Rush to a Free Market Economy , New York Times , http://www.nytimes.com/1992/08/15/world/india-stumbles-in-rush-to-a-free-market-economy.html , retrieved 22 July 2011  
  191. ^ Alamgir, Jalal (2009), India's open-economy policy: globalism, rivalry, continuity , Taylor & Francis US, pp. 23, 97, ISBN 9780415776844 , http://books.google.com/books?id=JL7QfWJ5Yk0C , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  192. ^ Country Comparison: Labor Force , CIA World retrieved 23 July 2011  
  193. ^ TNN (28 August 2009), "Exporters get wider market reach" , indiatimes.com (Times of retrieved 23 July 2011  
  194. ^ "Trade to expand by 9.5% in 2010 after a dismal 2009, WTO reports" , wto.org (World Trade Organization), 26 March 2010 , http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres10_e/pr598_e.htm , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  195. ^ The Nano, world's cheapest car, to hit Indian roads , Reuters, 23 March 2009 , http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/03/23/us-tatamotors-nano-idUSTRE52M2PA20090323 , retrieved 27 August 2009  
  196. ^ Associated Press (12 December 2009), India becomes biggest player in littlest cars , MSNBC , http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34575226/ns/business-autos , retrieved 7 April 2011  
  197. ^ Bonner, Bill (20 March 2010), Make way, world. India is on the move , Christian Science retrieved 23 July 2011  
  198. ^ a b Diana Farrell and Eric Beinhocker (19 May 2007), "Next Big Spenders: India's Middle Class" , BusinessWeek , http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/mginews/bigspenders.asp , retrieved 17 September 2011  
  199. ^ Schwab, Klaus (2010) (PDF), The Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 , World Economic Forum , http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdf , retrieved 10 May 2011  
  200. ^ Sheth, Niraj (28 May 2009), "Outlook for Outsourcing Spending Brightens" , The Wall Street retrieved 3 October 2010  
  201. ^ (PDF) Information Note to the Press (Press Release No.29 /2011) , Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 6 April 2011 , http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/trai/upload/PressReleases/816/Press_release_feb%20-11.pdf , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  202. ^ "India second fastest growing auto market after China" , Hindu Business Line , 9 April 2010 , http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/todays-paper/article988689.ece?ref=archive , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  203. ^ "Indian car exports surge 36%" , expressindia.com (Express India), 13 October 2009 , http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Indian-car-exports-surge-36/528633/ , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  204. ^ a b "Inclusive Growth and Service delivery: Building on India's Success" (PDF), World Bank , 29 May 2006 , http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/DPR_FullReport.pdf , retrieved 7 May 2009  
  205. ^ New Global Poverty Estimates – What it means for India , World retrieved 23 July 2011  
  206. ^ "India: Undernourished Children: A Call for Reform and Action" , World retrieved 23 July 2011  
  207. ^ Pal, Parthapratim; Ghosh, Jayati (July 2007), "Inequality in India: A survey of recent trends" (PDF), Economic and Social Affairs: DESA Working Paper No. 45 (United Nations) , http://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2007/wp45_2007.pdf , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  208. ^ (PDF) Corruption Perception Index 2010 – India Continues to be Corrupt , Transparency International – India, 26 retrieved 23 July 2011  
  209. ^ "India lost $462bn in illegal capital flows, says report" , News: South Asia (BBC), 18 November , http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11782795 , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  210. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand" , imf.org (International Monetary Fund), April retrieved 23 July 2011  
  211. ^ a b c (PDF) The World in 2050: The accelerating shift of global economic power: challenges and opportunities , PricewaterhouseCoopers , January2011 , http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/world-2050/pdf/world-in-2050-jan-2011.pdf , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  212. ^ "India Country Overview September 2010" , worldbank.org.in (World Bank), September retrieved 23 July 2011  
  213. ^ "Census Data 2001" , Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), retrieved 22 July 2011  
  214. ^ "The end of India's green revolution?" , BBC News: South Asia (news.bbc.co.uk), 29 May 2006 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4994590.stm , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  215. ^ "Lessons from the Green Revolution" , Institute for Food and Development Policy (Food First), 8 April 2000 , http://www.foodfirst.org/media/opeds/2000/4-greenrev.html , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  216. ^ a b Garg, Subhash Chandra (19 April 2005), "Mobilizing Urban Infrastructure Finance in India" (PDF), World retrieved 27 January 2010  
  217. ^ Dyson, Tim; Visaria, Pravin (7 July 2005), "Migration and urbanisation: Retrospect and prospects" , in Dyson, Tim; Casses, Robert; Visaria, Leela, Twenty-first century India: population, economy, human development, and the environment , Oxford University Press, pp. 115–129, ISBN 9780199283828 , http://books.google.com/books?id=bqU9T5c0wlYC , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  218. ^ Ratna, Udit (2007), "Interface between urban and rural development in India" , in Dutt, Ashok K.; Thakur, Baleshwar, City, Society, and Planning, Volume 1: City , Concept Publishing Company, pp. retrieved 23 July 2011  
  219. ^ "Kerala's literacy rate" , Government of Kerala (kerala.gov.in), archived from the original on 20 January 2008 , http://web.archive.org/web/20080120095810/http://www.kerala.gov.in/education/ , retrieved 13 December 2007  
  220. ^ Census Statistics of Bihar: Literacy Rates "Literacy rate of Bihar" , Government of Bihar (gov.bih.nic.in) , http://gov.bih.nic.in/Profile/CensusStats-03.htm Census Statistics of Bihar: Literacy Rates , retrieved 13 December 2007  
  221. ^ "Country Cooperation Strategy: India" (PDF), World Health Organization (who.int), November 2006 , http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_ind_en.pdf , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  222. ^ "Healthcare in India: Report Highlights" (PDF), Boston Analytics (bostonanalytics.com), January 2009 , http://bostonanalytics.com/india_watch/Healthcare%20in%20India%20Executive%20Summary.pdf , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  223. ^ Robinson, Simon (1 May 2008), "India's Medical Emergency" , Time US (TIME magazine) , http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1736516,00.html , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  224. ^ "Doctors per one hundred thousand people in India" , India Reports (india-reports.in), 7 November retrieved 23 July 2011  
  225. ^ Bonner, Arthur (1990), Averting the Apocalypse: social movements in India today , Duke University Press, p. 81, ISBN 9780822310488 , http://books.google.com/books?id=uxJlAgRemHgC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  226. ^ "Census of India 2001, Data on Religion" , Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), 2010–2011 , http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/religion.aspx , retrieved 23 July 2011  
  227. ^ Dharwadker, Aparna (28 October 2010), "Representing India's Pasts: Time, Culture, and Problems of Performance Historiography" , in Charlotte M. Canning, Thomas Postlewait, Representing the Past: Essays in Performance Historiography , University of Iowa Press, pp. 168–194, 186, ISBN 9781587299056 , http://books.google.com/books?id=Rgf0gbml2ocC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  228. ^ Languages by number of speakers according to 1991 census , Central Institute of Indian Languages, archived from the original on 27 September 2007 , http://web.archive.org/web/20070927214159/http://www.ciil.org/Main/Languages/map4.htm , retrieved 2 August 2007  
  229. ^ Mallikarjun, B (November 2004), "Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi–The Official Language of India" , Language in India 4 (11), ISSN 19302940 , http://www.languageinindia.com/nov2004/mallikarjunmalaysiapaper1.html , retrieved 24 July 2011   .
  230. ^ "Notification No. 2/8/60-OL" , President's Order, 1960 (rajbhasha.nic.in), 27 April 1960 , http://rajbhasha.nic.in/enpres-1960.htm , retrieved 13 May 2011  
  231. ^ "Taj Mahal" , World Heritage List (UNESCO World Heritage Centre) , http://whc.unesco.org/en/list , retrieved 28 September 2007 , "The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value."  
  232. ^ Kuiper 2010 , p. 15
  233. ^ Kuiper 2010 , p. 86
  234. ^ a b Heehs, Peter (2002), Indian religions: a historical reader of spiritual expression and experience , NYU Press, pp. 2–5, ISBN 9780814736500 , http://books.google.com/books?id=Jgsu-aIm3ncC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  235. ^ Deutsch, Eliot (1 June 1969), Advaita Ved?nta: a philosophical reconstruction , University of Hawaii Press, pp. 3, 78, ISBN 9780824802714 , http://books.google.com/books?id=63gdKwhHeV0C , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  236. ^ Nakamura, Hajime (1980), Indian Buddhism: a survey with bibliographical notes , Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 9788120802728 , http://books.google.com/books?id=w0A7y4TCeVQC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  237. ^ Kuiper 2010 , p. 296–329
  238. ^ Raichlen, Steven (10 May 2011), A Tandoor Oven Brings India's Heat to the Backyard , The New York retrieved 14 June 2011  
  239. ^ Delphine, Roger, (2000), "The History and Culture of Food in Asia", in Kiple & Kriemhild 2000 , pp. 1140–1151.
  240. ^ Yadav, Shyam S; Yadav, Shyam S.; McNeil, David; and Stevenson, Philip C. (2007-10-23), Lentil: An Ancient Crop for Modern "But it has been red lentils which have 'fed the masses' particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Lentils are a staple food in many regions"  
  241. ^ Achaya 1994 , Achaya 1997
  242. ^ Hoiberg, Dale (2000), Students' Britannica India: Select essays , Popular Prakashan, ISBN 0852297629  
  243. ^ Sarma, Srinivasa (1996), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1 , Motilal Banarsidass Publications, ISBN 8120802640  
  244. ^ Johnson 1998 , MacDonell 2004 , pp. 1–40, and K?lid?sa & Johnson (editor) 2001
  245. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1992), Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature , BRILL, p. 12, ISBN 9789004093652 , http://books.google.com/books?id=qAPtq49DZfoC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  246. ^ Hart, George Luzerne (1975), The poems of ancient Tamil , http://books.google.com/books?id=a5KwQwAACAAJ , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  247. ^ 1. Tamil Literature , Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008 , http://original.britannica.com/eb/article-9071111/Tamil-literature , retrieved 24 July 2011   2. Ramanujan 1985 , pp. ix–x. Quote : "These poems are 'classical,' ie early, ancient; they are also 'classics,' ie works that have stood the test of time, the founding works of a whole tradition. Not to know them is not to know a unique and major poetic achievement of Indian civilisation. Early classical Tamil literature (c. 100 BC–AD 250) consists of the Eight Anthologies ( E??uttokai ), the Ten Long Poems ( Pattupp???u ), and a grammar called the Tolk?ppiyam or the 'Old Composition.' ... The literature of classical Tamil later came to be known as Cankam (pronounced Sangam ) literature. (pp. ix–x.)"
  248. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (2006), A history of Indian literature, 500-1399: from courtly to the popular , Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 8126021713  
  249. ^ Datta, Amaresh (2006), The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) , Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 8126011947  
  250. ^ Carnes, Tony. Asian American religions: the making and remaking of borders and boundaries . NYU Press, 2004. ISBN 081471630X, 9780814716304 .  
  251. ^ Glenday, Craig. Guinness World Records 2009 . Random House, Inc., 2009. ISBN 0553592564, 9780553592566 .  
  252. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph (2011), "India: Caste" , Encyclopædia Britannica Online , http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285248/India/46404/Caste , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  253. ^ Paswan, Sanjay (2002), Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India: Movements , Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 8178350343  
  254. ^ "UN report slams India for caste discrimination" , CBC News , 2 March 2007 , http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/03/02/india-dalits.html , retrieved 17 July 2007  
  255. ^ Makar, Eugene M. (2007), An American's Guide to Doing Business in India , Adams  
  256. ^ a b Medora, Nilufer (2003), "Mate selection in contemporary India: Love marriages versus arranged marriages", in Hamon, Raeann R. and Ingoldsby, Bron B., Mate Selection Across Cultures , Sage Publications, pp. 209–230, ISBN 0761925929  
  257. ^ Jones, Gavin; Ramdas, Kamalini (2004), (Un)tying the knot: ideal and reality in Asian marriage , National University of Singapore Press, p.  
  258. ^ Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn (2009), Human trafficking , Infobase Publishing eBook, p.  
  259. ^ List of Holidays in India , http://www.indianpublicholidays.com/2009/11/list-of-holidays-in-india-2010/ , retrieved 7 July 2010  
  260. ^ Popular India Festivals , http://festivals.indobase.com/index.html , retrieved 23 December 2007  
  261. ^ Tarlo, Emma (1996), Clothing matters: dress and identity in India , University of Chicago Press, pp. xii, xii, 11, 15, 28, 46, ISBN 9780226789767 , http://books.google.com/books?id=ByoTXhXCuyAC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  262. ^ Eraly, Abraham; DK Publishing (2008), India , Penguin, pp. 160, ISBN 9780756649524 , http://books.google.com/books?id=HUdHHuFZN_8C&pg=PA160 , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  263. ^ Massey, Reginald; Massey, Jamila (1 January 1996), The music of India , Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170173328 , http://books.google.com/books?id=yySNDP9XVggC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  264. ^ "South Asian arts: Techniques and Types of Classical Dance" , Encyclopædia Britannica Online , 12 October 2007 , http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/556016/South-Asian-arts/65246/Indian-dance , retrieved 17 July 2011  
  265. ^ Lal 2004 , pp. 23, 30, 235
  266. ^ Karanth 1997 , p. 26 Quote: "The Yak?ag?na folk-theatre is no isolated theatrical form in India. We have a number of such theatrical traditions all around Karnataka... In far off Assam we have similar plays going on by the name of Ankia Nat , in neighouring Bengal we have the very popular Jatra plays. Maharashtra has Tamasa . (p. 26.)
  267. ^ Country profile: India , BBC, 31 March 2011 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm , retrieved 25 May 2011  
  268. ^ Dissanayake & Gokulsing 2004
  269. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen (editors) 1999
  270. ^ Southern movies account for over 75% of film revenues , The Economic Times, 18 November retrieved 18 June 2011  
  271. ^ Shores, Lori (15 February 2007), Teens in India , Compass Point Books, p. 78, ISBN 9780756520632 , http://books.google.com/books?id=CPQmbyiS-iEC , retrieved 24 July 2011  
  272. ^ Anand crowned World champion , Rediff, 29 October 2008 , http://www.rediff.com/sports/2008/oct/29anand.htm , retrieved 29 October 2008  
  273. ^ India Aims for Center Court , WSJ, 11 September 2009 , http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574406704026883502.html , retrieved 29 September 2010  
  274. ^ Commonwealth Games 2010: India dominate shooting medals , BBC, 7 October 2010 , http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/commonwealth_games/delhi_2010/9068886.stm , retrieved 3 June 2011  
  275. ^ Sawant shoots historic gold at World Championships , Times of India, 9 August retrieved 25 May 2011  
  276. ^ Saina Nehwal: India's badminton star and 'new woman' , BBC, 1 August 2010 , http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-10725584 , retrieved 5 October 2010  
  277. ^ Is boxing the new cricket? , Live Mint, 24 September 2010 , http://www.livemint.com/2010/09/24211250/Is-boxing-the-new-cricket.html , retrieved 5 October 2010  
  278. ^ India makes clean sweep in Greco-Roman wrestling , Times of India, 5 October 2010 , http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cwgarticleshow/6691936.cms , retrieved 5 October 2010  
  279. ^ Xavier, Leslie (12 September 2010). "Sushil Kumar wins gold in World Wrestling Championship" . Times of Retrieved 5 October 2010 .  
  280. ^ Majumdar & Bandyopadhyay 2006 , pp. 1–5.

Cited References

Geskiedenis
Geografie
Biodiversiteit
Kultuur

Eksterne skakels

Coordinates : 21°N 78°E ? / ? 21°N 78°E ? / 21; 78

Persoonlike gereedskap
Namespace
Variante
Aksies
Navigation
Interaksie
Toolbox
Print / uitvoer
Tale